L'essai étudie l'évolution des systèmes électriques de l'Union Européenne dans le cadre d'une politique bas carbone qui elle-même est la conséquence de la théorie du réchauffement climatique d'origine anthropique. Les promoteurs de la mutation du secteur de la production, transmission et distribution de l'électricité qui en résulte, se focalisent sur une diminution drastique des émissions de gaz à effet de serre (GES), en minimisant, voire en faisant fi des impacts socio-économiques (bienêtre, pouvoir d'achat, compétitivité, coûts, etc.) et financiers qu'entraîne cet objectif.
La transition énergétique est devenue une nécessité vitale face au réchauffement climatique dont les coûts socioéconomiques et écologiques font de plus en plus consensus. La transition énergétique comporte aussi une importante face cachée due aux conséquences en termes de matières premières issues d'un déploiement à grande échelle des énergies renouvelables et, plus généralement, des énergies décarbonées. L'auteur se propose d'analyser les problématiques économiques, techniques, financières et géopolitiques liées aux métaux (rares) dans le contexte d'un développement massif des énergies vertes. Il dresse au travers d'une argumentation chiffrée et documentée, un large tableau des risques amenés par une transition énergétique trop axée sur la décarbonation du mix énergétique à l'échelle mondiale.
The steps that lead to the production of oil and gas are diverse, complex and costly. They are diverse, because the detection of oil and gas involves input from many specialties, ranging from geology to reservoir engineering. They are complex, as shown by the development of the job of the petroleum architect, who coordinates all the operations. They are costly, as the investments for exploration and production represent more than half of all investments in the oil and gas sector. Moreover, exploration is a risky activity, both from the technical and financial viewpoint : only one well in five produces marketable oil. Meanwhile, the areas for exploration and production are spread throughout the world. This book provides a complete overview of the stakes and challenges invoived in oil and gas exploration and production. Following a historical review and a survey of the markets, the technical phases are covered, as are the evaluation of reserves, the estimation of investments and costs, the decision-making and control processes, and the accounting, legal and contractual environment for these activities. The book concludes with a discussion of the rote of safety, and of environmental and ethical issues. This work, which is designed for readers concerned with the various aspects of the oil and gas upstream sector, is accessible to all.
The Digital Oilfield is the buzzword of the oil industry in these early years of the 21st century. Data swiftly flows to databases, moves around the world at the speed of light and can be exchanged seamlessly between all stakeholders. From time to time, for good housekeeping, data is cleansed. Many people are involved in these intermediate or final steps. But, who cares about the real sources of oilfield data, seismic profiles, wirelines and LWD logs, drilling data and core measurements? This book expresses the real concerns about input data. It explains the inherent weaknesses of the oilfield data acquisition processes and gives recommendations on how to improve them. This quest goes through the paths of uncertainty management and elucidates the important role of the field engineers. Contents: 1. Introduction. Part 1. Why measurements differ from reality. 2. Setting the problem with simple examples. 3. All well measurements are indirect. 4. Logging measurements do not focus on zones of interest. 5. Measurements are imprecise and inaccurate. 6. How measurements can suffer from human bias. 7. Complexity. 8. Complication. 9. WYSINWYTII. 10. Misconceptions. Part 2: Quest for quality data. 11. The different uses of logging data. 12. Brochure Specifications. 13. Quest for uncertainties: From brochure specifications to real uncertainties. 14. Deliverables. 15. Depth. 16. Hidden Treasures. 17. Contribution of the field engineer to the quality of data. 18. Drilling data. 19. Coring data. 20. Conclusions and recommendations.
The latest edition of this best-selling title is updated and expanded for easier use by engineers. New to this edition is a section on the fundamentals of surface production operations taking up topics from the oilfield as originally planned by the authors in the first edition.
This information is necessary and endemic to production and process engineers. Now, the book offers a truly complete picture of surface production operations, from the production stage to the process stage with applications to process and production engineers. * New in-depth coverage of hydrocarbon characteristics, the different kinds of reservoirs, and impurities in crude. * Practical suggestions help readers understand the art and science of handling produced liquids. * Numerous, easy-to-read figures, charts, tables, and photos clearly explain how to design, specify, and operate oilfield surface production facilities.
Completions are the conduit between hydrocarbon reservoirs and surface facilities. They are a fundamental part of any hydrocarbon field development project. The have to be designed for safely maximising the hydrocarbon recovery from the well and may have to last for many years under ever changing conditions. Issues include: connection with the reservoir rock, avoiding sand production, selecting the correct interval, pumps and other forms of artificial lift, safety and integrity, equipment selection and installation and future well interventions
Useful for the petroleum geologist, geophysicist, reservoir engineer and the drilling engineer, this book is about finding out exactly where the product is and getting together the plan for getting it out of the ground. The basic tools used to do this are well logging and formation evalution.
An update of the PennWell classic nontechnical guide to logging techniques, this text provides an easy to understand overview of the technically complex subject of well logging.
Drilling technology has evolved in order to get at the increasingly harder to find oil, and in a more environmentally friendly way. Successful drilling operations require blending many technologies. Drilling equipment and procedures have a unique language that must be conquered in order to understand drilling operations.
Working Guide to Drilling Equipment and Operations provides a fundamental, basic knowledge of the intricacies of drilling fluid, drilled solids management, drill bits, drill string design, directional drilling, cementing, casing, hydraulic optimization, and a discussion of predominant problems such as stuck pipe and lost circulation. Background information, such as: clay structure (needed to understand well bore instability and drilling fluids), discussion of pressure and pressure effects, the theory behind factors affecting drilling performance, and rock failure under pressure, are included to enhance the understanding of the drilling process and problems.
This book gives the reader an overview of how Oil & Gas Facilities are engineered. It covers their entire design cycle, from the high level functional duty to the detailed design.
Each engineering task is described and illustrated with a sample document taken from a real project.
Unlike engineering manuals which generally cover a specific discipline, such as process or civil engineering only, this work covers them all. Baron has done the hard work of distilling the essence of these disciplines and presenting them in a concise and precise fashion.
Containing more than 250 illustrations, the book gives the reader a comprehensive information to easily refer to at any point in the project's life cycle.
Contemporary engineering work for large projects is usually carried out at multiple locations. This does not make it easy for the new comer to gain an end-to-end knowledge. This work will fast track this acquisition. It will also meet the needs of anyone wishing to understand the technical factors driving the execution of a project.
Cet ouvrage présente les propriétés essentielles des réseaux de neurones artificiels ainsi que leurs applications les plus communément utilisées.
Il met l'accent sur les aspects fondamentaux de ces réseaux et convient tout particulièrement aux étudiants ingénieurs et chercheurs désirant se familiariser avec ses concepts et les approfondir. Après une description détaillée des principales propriétés des réseaux de neurones artificiels et des techniques d'apprentissage, supervisé ou non, les plus courantes, les applications suivantes sont présentées : analyse en composantes principales, classification et reconnaissance de patrons, identification et optimisation par les réseaux de Hopfield, modélisation et commande par les réseaux neuro-flous, commande des processus, approximation de fonctions.
Tout au long de l'ouvrage, divers exemples de mise en oeuvre sont proposés pour faciliter la compréhension et l'assimilation.
Following the success of the Drilling Data Handbook, Editions Technip has designed this book to cover the well logging principles and its applications. This well logging handbook first edition starts with a summary on geology and petrophysics focusing mainly on its applications. The wide range of logging measurements and applications is covered through eleven sections, each of them organised into four chapters : the basic physical principles of each measurement ; the different WL and LWD tools ; the main factors influencing the measurements ; the main geophysical, geological and petrophysical applications of the measurements. A large proportion of figures and tables is there to facilitate the understanding of more complex subjects. An exhaustive bibliography is also available at the end of this book for those readers willing to deepen their knowledge on any particular topic. Finally, a simple and easy access to the information is made possible thanks to a detailed subject index. All in all, this is a valuable, strongly-bound, user-friendly book with useful information for those involved in all aspects and applications of well-Jogging. The paging is notched and externally labelled alphabetically to allow a quick access.
Coauthored by a leading drilling engineering professor/researcher and a well-experienced drilling research advisor, Drilling Engineering explains the fundamentals and field practices in drilling operations. This textbook is an excellent resource for drilling engineers, drilling supervisors and managers, and petroleum engineering students.